History[ edit ] The original version of file originated in Unix Research Version 4  in System V brought a major update with several important changes, most notably moving the file type information into an external text file rather than compiling it into the binary itself.
But they can all be used on turing in essentially the same way, by typing the command and hitting return. Note that some of these commands are different on non-Solaris machines - see SunOS differences.
If you've made a typo, the easiest thing to do is hit CTRL-u to cancel the whole line. Files ls lists your files ls -l lists your files in 'long format', which contains lots of useful information, e.
There are many more options, for example to list files by size, by date, recursively etc. Just hit the space bar to see more or q to quit. See the emacs page. It is wise to use the option rm -i, which will ask you for confirmation before actually deleting anything.
You can make this your default by making an alias in your. The default is that only you can look at them and change them, but you may sometimes want to change these permissions. Note that for someone to be able to actually look at the file the directories it is in need to be at least executable.
See help protection for more details. File Compression gzip filename compresses files, so that they take up much less space. Usually text files compress to about half their original size, but it depends very much on the size of the file and the nature of the contents.
There are other tools for this purpose, too e. Gzip produces files with the ending '. You can even print it directly, using gzcat filename lpr printing lpr filename print. Use the -P option to specify the printer name if you want to use a printer other than your default printer.
For example, if you want to print double-sided, use 'lpr -Pvalkyr-d', or if you're at CSLI, you may want to use 'lpr -Pcordd'. See 'help printers' for more information about printers and their locations. You can find the job number by using lpq. Theoretically you also have to specify a printer name, but this isn't necessary as long as you use your default printer in the department.
You can use dviselect to print only selected pages. See the LaTeX page for more information about how to save paper when printing drafts. Directories Directories, like folders on a Macintosh, are used to group files together in a hierarchical structure.
You basically 'go' to another directory, and you will see the files in that directory when you do 'ls'.
You always start out in your 'home directory', and you can get back there by typing 'cd' without arguments. You don't have to walk along step by step - you can make big leaps or avoid walking around by specifying pathnames.
Finding things ff find files anywhere on the system. This can be extremely useful if you've forgotten in which directory you put a file, but do remember the name.
In fact, if you use ff -p you don't even need the full name, just the beginning. This can also be useful for finding other things on the system, e. This can be useful a lot of purposes, e.
Check out the man pages if this sounds good to you.
About other people w tells you who's logged in, and what they're doing. This allows you to see whether they're actually sitting there typing away at their keyboards right at the moment.For example when you see a file with an extension of gif, jpg, bmp, or png you think of an image file, and when you see a file with an extension of zip, you assume the file has been compressed using a zip compression utility.
One possible reason why the commands below, which should work, seemed not to work is that the file originated on Windows or transited via a Windows machine and actually has CRLF (carriage return, line feed) endings instead of Unix . If you want a single part of the file, your idea to use gunzip and head is right.
You can use: gunzip -c metin2sell.com | head -n That would output the first lines on standard out - you probably want to append . This is a file from the Wikimedia metin2sell.comation from its description page there is shown below. Commons is a freely licensed media file repository.
You can help. I'm using the Unix tar command as follows to tar up a directory and its files: tar cvzf metin2sell.com directoryToTar Is there a way to password protect metin2sell.com file?
I've created password-prote. A Unix filesystem is a collection of files and directories that has the following properties − It has a root directory (/) that contains other files and directories. Each file or directory is uniquely identified by its name, the directory in which it resides, and a unique identifier, typically called an inode.