Overview[ edit ] Chester Barnard recognized that individuals behave differently when acting in their organizational role than when acting separately from the organization. One of the main goals of organizational behavior is "to revitalize organizational theory and develop a better conceptualization of organizational life".
Classical Organization Theory Classical organization theory evolved during the first half of this century. It represents the merger of scientific management, bureaucratic theory, and administrative theory. Frederick Taylor developed scientific management theory often called "Taylorism" at the beginning of this century.
His theory had four basic principles: Initially, Taylor was very successful at improving production. His methods involved getting the best equipment and people, and then carefully scrutinizing each component of the production process.
By analyzing each task individually, Taylor was able to find the right combinations of factors that yielded large increases in production. While Taylor's scientific management theory proved successful in the simple industrialized companies at the turn of the century, it has not faired well in modern companies.
The philosophy of "production first, people second" has left a legacy of declining production and quality, dissatisfaction with work, loss of pride in workmanship, and a near complete loss of organizational pride.
Max Weber expanded on Taylor's theories, and stressed the need to reduce diversity and ambiguity in organizations. The focus was on establishing clear lines of authority and control. Weber's bureaucratic theory emphasized the need for a hierarchical structure of power.
It recognized the importance of division of labor and specialization. A formal set of rules was bound into the hierarchy structure to insure stability and uniformity.
Weber also put forth the notion that organizational behavior is a network of human interactions, where all behavior could be understood by looking at cause and effect. The emphasis was on establishing a universal set of management principles that could be applied to all organizations. Classical management theory was rigid and mechanistic.
The shortcomings of classical organization theory quickly became apparent. Its major deficiency was that it attempted to explain peoples' motivation to work strictly as a function of economic reward. Neoclassical Organization Theory The human relations movement evolved as a reaction to the tough, authoritarian structure of classical theory.
It addressed many of the problems inherent in classical theory. The most serious objections to classical theory are that it created overconformity and rigidity, thus squelching creativity, individual growth, and motivation.
Neoclassical theory displayed genuine concern for human needs. One of the first experiments that challenged the classical view was conducted by Mayo and Roethlisberger in the late 's at the Western Electric plant in Hawthorne, Illinois Mayo, While manipulating conditions in the work environment e.
The act of paying attention to employees in a friendly and nonthreatening way was sufficient by itself to increase output. Uris referred to this as the "wart" theory of productivity.
Nearly any treatment can make a wart go away--nearly anything will improve productivity. The Hawthorne experiment is quite disturbing because it cast doubts on our ability to evaluate the efficacy of new management theories.
An organization might continually involve itself in the latest management fads to produce a continuous string of Hawthorne effects. Pascale believes that the Hawthorne effect is often misinterpreted. It is a "parable about researchers and managers manipulating and 'playing tricks' on employees.
Writing inBarnard proposed one of the first modern theories of organization by defining organization as a system of consciously coordinated activities.
He stressed in role of the executive in creating an atmosphere where there is coherence of values and purpose. Organizational success was linked to the ability of a leader to create a cohesive environment. He proposed that a manager's authority is derived from subordinates' acceptance, instead of the hierarchical power structure of the organization.
Barnard's theory contains elements of both classical and neoclassical approaches. Since there is no consensus among scholars, it might be most appropriate to think of Barnard as a transition theorist.
Simon made an important contribution to the study of organizations when he proposed a model of "limited rationality" to explain the Hawthorne experiments. The theory stated that workers could respond unpredictably to managerial attention.Macro organizational theory studies whole organizations and industries, including how they adapt, and the strategies, structures, and contingencies that guide them.
Concepts such as leadership, decision making, team building, motivation, and job satisfaction are all facets of organizational behavior and responsibilities of management.
Here is the best resource for homework help with BUSI Organizational Theory at Columbia College. Find BUSI study guides, notes, and practice tests. The Project Manager of the Future: Developing Digital-Age Project Management Skills to Thrive In Disruptive Times While the future will hold challenges, disruptive technology holds the promise of helping project managers perform better and on .
The project management organizational structure has been used effectively in highly dynamic and technological environments (French, Kast and Rosenzweig, ).
The project manager becomes the focal point for information and . Organizational Theory and Practice (BUSI ) Integrative Term Project Megan Haithcock 28 February Page 9 of 27 turnover. This is because the employees are usually motivated to help their referrals succeed and it’s less costly to run an incentive program than to replace an employee%(15).
Project breakdown structures, organization and responsibility charts, information systems, and project specifications are all examples of project work that have been affected by the systems approach. Systems management is a key systems concept (19).