Defining peoples roles in society

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Defining peoples roles in society

Why Ever, the fifth of eleven patriarchs from Noach to Avraham, was mentioned in this particular way, as one who is acknowledged ancestor of some special descent that actually begins six generations later? The genealogic line splits into two branches after him, implying that many peoples are his children before Avraham was born, including the branch from which Avraham does not come The eleven-generation line from Noach to Avraham is: Was Avraham a Hebrew, being himself the father of Hebrews?

However, the weight of linguistic evidence from around the world speaks against such supposition. We simply do not have sufficient knowledge of those times to say which language resided in which territory by which group of people and how the people and the languages may have moved and mixed from one area to another.

But we now know with a wealth of explicit evidence that Hebrew is the language in which the Scriptures were written, and they are among the most ancient documents we have. Some Egyptian monuments mention an enigmatic people: In one of them, a scene depicting men working at a wine press was carved on the stone walls.

Beneath the picture was a title: The date of the monument is believed to be during the reign of queen Hatshepshut and Tutmose III, about the year b. Scholars immediately recognized the similarity of the word "Apiru" to "Hebrew", with a scene depicting manual labour, as described in Exodus for Hebrew people under bondage in Egypt.

They were being used as quarrymen and manual labourers. These references to the Apiru in Egyptian documents and on monuments show their presence in Egypt, and their social importance, for more than three centuries.

Defining peoples roles in society

The same people are called elsewhere "Habiru" or "Habiri". Er-Heba, the Egyptian ruler in Jerusalem, wrote a series of letters to the king in which he complained about the "Habiru". The Habiru were plundering the lands of the king. Er-Heba wanted to know why the king was leaving them behave in this way; why was he not sending archers to protect the king's properties.

If he did not send military help the whole land would be given to the Habiru.

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If the events of this period were those described by Yehoshua in the Scriptures they would place the Exodus prior to the fourteenth century b. The activities of the Habiri in Southern Canaan concerns many scholars; they believe this area was not attached to Israelite territory until much later.

However, Chapters 10 to 12 in the Book of Yehoshua describe just such conquest, with the very names listed in the Amarna tablets, including Lachish, Gezer, Gath, and the king of Jerusalem. A quote from one tablet shows the state of affairs: They have the troops of Gezer, troops of Gath, and troops of Qeila.

Defining peoples roles in society

They have seized the land of Rubute. The land of the king has fallen away to the Habiri. And now, even a city of the Jerusalem district, Bit-nin'ib by name, a city of the king, has fallen away to the side of the people of Qeila. Let the king listen to Er-Heba, your servant, and send an army of archers that they might restore the land of the king to the king.

For if there are no army of archers the land of the king will fall away to the Habiri. The identification of groups of Habiri and their activities corresponds well to the conquest of Canaan described in the Book of Yehoshua.

The Amarna letters suggest that this class of people held unique status in the Near East. All these documents lead to fully identify the Habiru with the Israelites, until other sources bring great perplexity The Apiru are obviously a recognizable people distinct from others.

If the Apiru were Hebrews, not all of them were descended from the original twelve Tribes, and other Semitic groups maybe the Hyksos among them were included. The span of dates covers the period of the exile in Egypt and also well after the Exodus.

It seems evident that not all Apiru left Egypt; some remained behind. This means that not all Semitic peoples in Egypt joined the Israelites, though many did.

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Although not of tribal identity, with a specific geographical location, it was given special regard. The location of the Habiri in Southern Syria, Phoenicia, and Canaan suggests that the term was used generally for the Semitic tribes of those areas.

It described a particular Semitic stock which, by historical times, had divided into numerous tribes and separate, identifiable ethnic groups. The earliest known reference to the Habiru are from Sumer and date from the Third Dynasty of Ur, about the year b.

A characteristic of this period was the expansion of Semitic peoples; mainly native Akkadian speaking groups. All the Sumerian records show that the Habiri were active in service roles in the community, as well as the Israelites did in Egypt, and later in the court of Nebukhadnetzar.

Excavations at Kultepe and Alishar in ancient Anatolia, uncovered several hoards of letters and legal and economic texts, belonging to Assyrian trading stations of the old Akkadian period.Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future Summary of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada.

This web version of the Report is an unofficial plain-text extract of the original(PDF, 14MB) published by the The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada.. It is aimed at making the Report more accessible. In phenomenology, the terms the Other and the Constitutive Other identify the other human being, in their differences from the Self, as being a cumulative, constituting factor in the self-image of a person; as their acknowledgement of being real; hence, the Other is dissimilar to and the opposite of the Self, of Us, and of the Same.

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