How to Write a Summary of an Article? Cognitive Approaches in Psychology In this essay I will outline two approaches in psychology, compare and contrast them as well discussing the nature and nurture debate regarding both approaches. I will be examining a theorist from each approach outlining and evaluating his theory including the positive alltributes along with the negative.
Saul McLeodCognitive approaches in psychology Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of the mind as an information processor. Cognitive psychology became of great importance in the mids.
Several factors were important in this: Disatisfaction with the behaviorist approach in its simple emphasis on external behavior rather than internal processes. The development of better experimental methods. Comparison between human and computer processing of information.
The emphasis of psychology shifted away from the study of conditioned behavior and psychoanalytical notions about the study of the mind, towards the understanding of human information processing, using strict and rigorous laboratory investigation.
Basic Assumptions Basic Assumptions Mediational processes occur between stimulus and response: Behaviourists rejected the idea of studying the mind because internal mental processes cannot be observed and objectively measured.
However, cognitive psychologists regard it as essential to look at the mental processes of an organism and how these influence behaviour. Instead of the simple stimulus-response links proposed by behaviourism, the mediational processes of the organism are important to understand.
Without this understanding, psychologists cannot have a complete understanding of behaviour. Psychology should be seen as a science: Cognitive psychologists follow the example of the behaviourists in preferring objective, controlled, scientific methods for investigating behaviour.
They use the results of their investigations as the basis for making inferences about mental processes. Humans are information processors: Information processing in humans resembles that in computers, and is based on based on transforming information, storing information and retrieving information from memory.
Information processing models of cognitive processes such as memory and attention assume that mental processes follow a clear sequence. Input processes are concerned with the analysis of the stimuli.
Storage processes cover everything that happens to stimuli internally in the brain and can include coding and manipulation of the stimuli. Output processes are responsible for preparing an appropriate response to a stimulus.
Interest in mental processes had been gradually restored through the work of Piaget and Tolman. His book Purposive Behaviour in Animals and Man in described research which behaviourism found difficult to explain.
However, Tolman suggested that learning was based on the relationships which formed amongst stimuli. He referred to these relationships as cognitive maps. But it was the arrival of the computer that gave cognitive psychology the terminology and metaphor it needed to investigate the human mind.
The start of the use of computers allowed psychologists to try to understand the complexities of human cognition by comparing it with something simpler and better understood, i. The use of the computer as a tool for thinking how the human mind handles information is known as the computer analogy.
Essentially, a computer codes i. The idea of information processing was adopted by cognitive psychologists as a model of how human thought works. The information processing approach is based on a number of assumptions, including: Information made available from the environment is processed by a series of processing systems e.
Mediational Processes The behaviorists approach only studies external observable stimulus and response behavior which can be objectively measured.There is some dispute as to who created the cognitive approach, but some sources attribute the term to the s and s, with Ulric Neisser's book Cognitive Psychology, which made allusions of the human mind working in a similar fashion to computers.
In addition to adding to our understanding of how the human mind works, the field of cognitive psychology has also had an impact on approaches to mental health.
Before the s, many mental health approaches were focused more on psychoanalytic, behavioral, and humanistic approaches.
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking". Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines such as Cognitive Science and of psychological study, including educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology.
Cognitive psychology has influenced and integrated with many other approaches and areas of study to produce, for example, social learning theory, cognitive neuropsychology and artificial intelligence (AI). Cognitive Approaches in Psychology In this essay I will outline two approaches in psychology, compare and contrast them as well discussing the nature and nurture debate regarding both approaches.
I will be examining a theorist from each approach outlining and evaluating his theory including the positive alltributes along with the negative. Explanation of approaches in psychology, including behaviorism, cognitive and psychodynamic approaches, and biological approaches.