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Romulus Augustulus Flavius Momyllus Romulus Augustulus West only — Law and order had vanished from the Roman state when its ruling aristocrats refused to curb their individual ambitions, when the most corrupt and violent persons could gain protection for their crimes by promising their support to the ambitious, and when the ambitious and the violent together could thus transform a republic based on disciplined liberty into a turbulent cockpit of murderous rivalries.
Good government depended on limits being set to unrestrained aspirationsand Octavian was in a position to impose them. But his military might, though sufficiently strong in 31 bc to guarantee orderly political processes, was itself incompatible with them; nor did he relish the role of military despot.
The fate of Julius Caesaran eagerness to acquire political respectability, and his own esteem for ancestral custom combined to dissuade Octavian from it. His pragmatic responses not only ensured stability and continuity but also respected republican forms and traditions so far as possible.
In 29—28 bc Octavian carried out, with Marcus Vipsanius Agrippahis powerful deputy, the first census of the Roman people since 70; and this involved drawing up an electoral roll for the Centuriate Assembly. Elections followed, and Octavian was inevitably chosen consul.
The Roman Senate rejected this proposal, charging him instead to administer besides Egypt Spain, Gauland Syria for the next 10 years, while it itself was to supervise the rest of the empire.
Three days later, among other honours, it bestowed upon him the name by which he has ever since been known, Augustus. AugustusAugustus, statue in Rome. Moreover, so long as he was consul he was reelected every year until 23 bche was civilian head of government as well.
In other words, he was still preeminent and all-powerful, even if he had, in his own words, placed the res publica at the disposal of the Senate and the Roman people. Augustus particularly wished to conciliate the senatorial class, without whose cooperation civilian government was impossible.
But his monopolization of the consulship offended the Senate, making a different arrangement clearly necessary.
Accordingly, in 23 Augustus made a change; he vacated the consulship and never held it again except momentarily in 5 bc and again in 2 bc, for a limited, specific purpose. In its place he received the tribunician power tribunicia potestas. But he could acquire the rights and privileges pertaining to the office; and they were conferred upon him, apparently by the Senate, whose action was then ratified by the popular assembly.
Through his tribunician power he could also summon the popular assembly and participate fully in its proceedings. Clearly, although no longer consul, he still retained the legal right to authority in civilian affairs.
The arrangement of 23 entailed an additional advantage. Indeed, Augustus thenceforth shrewdly propagated the notion that, if his position in the state was exceptional which it clearly wasit was precisely because of his tribunician power. Although he held it for only one year at a time, it was indefinitely renewable and was pronounced his for life.
Thus, it was both annual and perpetual and was a suitable vehicle for numbering the years of his supremacy. His era and this is true also of later emperors was counted officially from the year when he acquired the tribunician power.Britain has never relished doses of constitutional reform, although they have accepted the drip-feed of frequent, unpalatable and ill-fated local government changes.
Ambivalence to reform was reinforced in recent decades. The Labour government proposed an ambitious program of . Constitution of the United Kingdom Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: UK Constitution and Government Wikimedia Commons has media related to Constitution of the United Kingdom.
is and in to a was not you i of it the be he his but for are this that by on at they with which she or from had we will have an what been one if would who has her. There are those who in the realm of science fiction literature wonder if galactic empires are the new "Middle-Earth".But interstellar empires never seem to go out of style, and regardless of their practicality they remain a powerful meme.
The terrorist organization Aum Shinrikyo found inspiration in the galactic empire of Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy. Intellectual life of the Late Republic. The late Roman Republic, despite its turmoil, was a period of remarkable intellectual ferment.
|Government||That the rate of degeneration is progressively accelerating constitutes a cause for great alarm, particularly since this is taking place in spite of the advance that is being made in modern science along many lines of investigation.|
Many of the leading political figures were men of serious intellectual interests and literary achievement; foremost among them were Cicero, Caesar, Cato, Pompey, and Varro, all of them senators.
"Britain has never relished doses of constitutional reform, although they have accepted the drip-feed of frequent, unpalatable and ill-fated local government changes. Ambivalence to .