The Roman Empire had remained, to a limited degree, multiethnic, multicultural, and multireligious, even after Christianity became its official religion. With the breakup of the Empire, the Western Church increasingly sought to assert its authority in the secular as well as in the spiritual realm. The society it envisioned was Christian in conformity with the doctrine laid down by the Roman Church.
Romans set up generals as emperors, who were quickly deposed by rival claimants. This pattern continued until Diocletian r. He and Constantine administratively reorganized the empire, engineering an absolute monarchy.
Constantine the Great patronized Christianity, particularly in his new city Constantinople, founded on the ancient site of Byzantium. Christianity became the Roman state religion under Theodosius r. Germanic tribal invasions also proceeded, as did battles with the Sassanids in the East.
FromGothic invasions, spurred by Hun marauding, began en masse. Entanglement with imperial armies resulted in increased migration into Roman heartlands as far as Iberia.
The Empire underwent a certain Germanization. After the death of Theodosius, the Eastern Empire followed its own course, evolving into Hellenized Byzantium by the seventh century.
Repeated sackings of Latin Rome, contraction of food supplies, and deposition of the last Western emperor by the Odovacarended any hope of recoveringPax-Romana in the Mediterranean basin.
Gaul was controlled by a shifting patchwork of tribes.
Heroic attempts of the Eastern Emperor Justinian r. The Avar Khanate was well-established beyond the Danube, Franks occupied Germany and France, just as the Visigoths controlled all of Spain but the southern sliver, and the Angles and Saxons had moved into southern Denmark and western Britain.
The next two centuries were instrumental for the creation of medieval civilization.
|The breakdown of the Carolingian Empire in the later 9th century, combined with the relative stabilization of local European borders after the Christianization of the Vikings, Slavs, and Magyars, meant that there was an entire class of warriors who now had very little to do but fight among themselves and terrorize the peasant population. The Church tried to stem this violence with the Peace and Truce of God movements, forbidding violence against certain people at certain times of the year.|
|An overview of the middle of eleventh century crusades||Crusades The Crusades were a series of several military campaigns — usually sanctioned by the Papacy— that took place during the 11th through 13th centuries. Originally, they were Roman Catholic endeavors to re-capture the Holy Land from the Muslims, but some were directed against other Europeans, such as the Fourth Crusade against Constantinople, the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars of southern France and the Northern Crusades.|
|Categoryth-century crusades - Wikipedia||The breakdown of the Carolingian Empire in the later 9th century, combined with the relative stabilization of local European borders after the Christianization of the Vikings, Slavs, and Magyars, meant that there was an entire class of warriors who now had very little to do but fight among themselves and terrorize the peasant population. The Church tried to stem this violence with the Peace and Truce of God movements, forbidding violence against certain people at certain times of the year.|
Politically, Byzantium faced the explosion of the Avars as far as Thrace. Additionally, renewed Sassanid Persian offensives deprived Byzantium of the state of Eastern Anatolia as well as the Levant, the birthplace of Christianity.
In the West, while Lombards and other various tribes held Italy in uneasy alliances, the three-way split of France between the Burgundians, Visigoths and Franks had been decided in favor of the latter, in the form of the Merovingian dynasty of Clovis and his sons s.
Continual partitioning under descendants, dynastic infighting, and the sheer limits of seventh-century coercive force, contributed to disintegration of central control, whereby provincial counts took localized power for themselves, and Palace deputies usurped much of the power of the consistently young-dying Merovingian kings.
One mayor, Pepin II, subdued his counterparts in other Merovingian lands and united the realms. His son Charles Martel, in addition to defeating the Muslims at Toursextended family control further to the East.
In the ninth century the Carolingian empire continued its disintegration, and Viking and Norman raids extended to inland regions of Spain, France, and Italy on a nearly yearly basis, while rising Muslim naval activity in the central Mediterranean further imperiled trade and Italian polities.
In the latter two instances the Normans displaced Muslims: These processes brought about a severe localization of European power, evidenced by the emergence of feudalism, based upon personal bonds of vassalage, and a manor system organizing agricultural production and rural security.
Bishoprics also became prominent in providing administration, justice, and moral guidance.
The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to (A History of the Near East) 1st EditionReviews: 3. Overview and Analysis of the Crusades The Crusades first began in and ended in the late 13th century. The Crusades were holy wars sponsored by the papacy for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims from the late eleventh to the late thirteenth centuries. In the middle of the Eleventh Century, the peace of the eastern Mediterranean seemed assured for many years to come, but little did the people know what was ahead. In this project, I will be discussing the events that lead up to the first in a long line of crusades. I will also be mentionin.
From the s onward, the Papacy expanded hierarchically, demonstrating an increased independence from Constantinople manifested in doctrinal differences and near schisms in the ninth century. Monasticism arose, energizing the Church and papacy. Beginning in the Middle East and given a European foundation by the Benedictine Codesuccessive Monastic reform movements in the ninth century and then in the tenth-eleventh century Cluny gave greater vigor to Church attempts to a preserve the remnants of classical learning; b elaborate theology; c lessen fighting in Europe while encouraging Reconquista.
In addition, as monastics became popes, the Church became able to assert increased claims to a spiritual papacy with worldly powers. The political complexion of Europe simplifies in the second quarter of the 10th century, as post-Carolingian notable elites elevated the dukes of Franconia Conrad and Henry I, r.An overview of the middle of eleventh century crusades October 6, by Leave a Comment Vol 1)" As one a guide to the religion of zoroastrianism born into a Roman charles darwin and the theory of evolution Catholic family.
In the eleventh century, Christian teaching about war changed. the Church enlisted them in crusades against the Moslems who had conquered the Middle East, North Africa, southern Spain, and much of Asia Minor.
The crusaders were to be soldiers of God who fought with the promises of indulgence for sins and of salvation. An Overview of the Middle of Eleventh Century Crusades PAGES 2.
WORDS 1, View Full Essay. More essays like this: causes of crusades, christian military expeditions, eleventh century. Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - . The Muslim world before the Crusades - Muslims and Crusaders: Christianity's Wars in the Middle East, to the build-up of support for the crusade that would eventually manifest itself in military action at the end of the eleventh century.
For more on the Middle East immediately before the Crusades, see. In the middle of the Eleventh Century, the peace of the eastern Mediterranean seemed assured for many years to come, but little did the people know what was ahead.
In this project, I will be discussing the events that lead up to the first in a long line of crusades. I will also be mentionin. Dec 23, · metin2sell.com This video is a short, to-the-point overview of how the Crusades began and their general history .